Bài 7 – Trách nhiệm đâm va (collision liability)

Thông thường đơn bảo hiểm hàng hoá không được nới rộng để bảo đảm trách nhiệm pháp định của người được bảo hiểm, và ICC cũng không có ngoại lệ nào về vấn đề này. Tuy nhiên, người bảo hiểm hàng hoá nhận ra là người được bảo hiểm có thể bị phương hại nếu hợp đồng chuyên chở có điều khoản “đâm va cả hai cùng có lỗi” và chủ tàu sẽ vận dụng điều khoản này. Để hiểu được tình huống này, cần giả định là người chuyên chở đã ký hợp đồng miễn trách nhiệm đối với hàng hoá trong trường hợp đâm va và người bảo hiểm hàng hoá đã thực hiện quyền thế nhiệm (subrogation right) để đòi bồi thường tàu không chở hàng (non – carrying vessel) 100% tổn thất gây ra cho hàng hoá trong vụ đâm va. Theo luật pháp nhiều nước, tàu không chở hàng có thể đưa một phần số tiền bồi thường ấy vào khiều nại của mình, nếu có, để đòi bồi thường tàu chở hàng (carrying vessel). Dự kiến khả năng này, người chuyên chở đưa vào “điều khoản đâm va cả hai cùng lỗi” vào hợp đồng chuyên chở, theo đó họ đòi lại số tiền từ chủ hàng. Người được bảo hiểm đã đòi bồi thường đầy đủ theo đơn bảo hiểm, lại phải bỏ tiền ra trả người chuyên chở. Để đảm bảo cho người được bảo hiểm không bị phương hại như thế, ICC có điều khoản sau đây (chung cả ba bộ):

3. Điều khoản đâm va đôi bên cùng có lỗi

Bảo hiểm này được mở rộng để bồi thường người được bảo hiểm phần trách nhiệm nào theo điều khoản “Đâm va đôi bên cùng có lỗi ” trong hợp đồng chuyên chở có liên quan đến một tổn thất được bồi thường dưới đây. Trường hợp chủ tàu dựa vào điều khoản đã nói để khiếu nại thì người được bảo hiểm đồng ý thông báo cho người bảo hiểm . Người bảo hiểm có quyền bảo vệ người được bảo hiểm chống lại khiếu nại của chủ tàu với mọi chi phí mình chịu.Trong thí dụ dưới đây hàng hoá được chuyên chở trên một tàu mà trách nhiệm đâm va là 50% và hàng hoá trên tàu này bị tổn hại. Số tổn hại này là = $ 20,000 và được bảo hiểm đầy đủ trị giá theo điều khoản B. Người được bảo hiểm chon theo cách đòi bồi thường theo đơn bảo hiểm của mình và để cho người bảo hiểm thực hiện theo đuổi kiện chống lại bên có trách nhiệm trong tai nạn đâm va. Tính số tiền đòi người chuyên chở bị triệt tiêu bởi điều kiện hợp đồng chuyên chở, tính khiếu nại của người bảo hiểm và số tiền đòi được từ tàu không chuyên chở, số tiền khiếu nại đầy đủ người bảo hiểm đã phải bồi thường. Tàu không chuyên chở đòi lại tàu chuyên chở, 50% trách nhiệm, người này lài chuyển trách nhiệm cho chủ hàng. Cuối cùng người được bảo hiểm hàng hoá đòi lại số tổn thất thêm theo “điều khoản đâm va hai bên cùng có lỗi”. Các con số dưới đây minh hoạ các khoản bồi thường:  


       Quy trình Vị thế người được bảo hiểm Vị thế tàu chuyên chở Vị thế tàu không chuyên chở Vị thế người bảo hiểm
Tổn thất phải chịuKhiếu nại từ người bảo hiểmĐòi được của người bảo hiểmNgười không chuyên chở khiếu nại người chuyên chởNgười chuyên chở khiếu nại người được bảo hiểm $20,000(-) 20,000(+)    10,000(-)     $10,000(-)    10,000(-)   $20,000(-) 10,000(+)  $20,000(-)$20,000(+)
Sơ kếtKhiếu nại theo điều khoản đâm va đôi bên cùng có lỗi 10,000(-)  10,000(+)    10,000(-)    10,000(-)
Tổng kết      10,000(-)  10,000(+)


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